A study found an association between an increase in attendance to AA meetings with increased spirituality and a decrease in the frequency and intensity of alcohol use. The research also found that AA was effective at helping agnostics and atheists become sober. The authors concluded that though spirituality was an important mechanism of behavioral change for some alcoholics, it was not the only effective mechanism.[54] Since the mid-1970s, a number of 'agnostic' or 'no-prayer' AA groups have begun across the U.S., Canada, and other parts of the world, which hold meetings that adhere to a tradition allowing alcoholics to freely express their doubts or disbelief that spirituality will help their recovery, and these meetings forgo use of opening or closing prayers.[55][56] There are online resources listing AA meetings for atheists and agnostics.[57]
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Michael, while one of the above posters felt that the anti-medication bias of many AA members (as well as its entire leadership) is receding, I have not seen that at all. Patients on methadone, buprenorphine and even (very recently) Vivitrol, are told that they are not "clean," cannot speak at the meeting, cannot receive sobriety tokens, cannot join in on committments and in fact are still using.  They are urged routinely to stop their medications.  While it has perhaps receded with some psychiatric medications, it has NOT with many other medications, including Disulfiram, Campral and Naltrexone.
When an individual has been struggling through an addiction, it is usually not simply the substance abuser who needs support. Family members' lives are often closely connected with, and deeply affected by, the loved one who has been abusing a substance. Thankfully, there are also support groups to help carry these loved ones through the difficult times and questions that may arise in these circumstances.
Added fat and scar tissue on the liver due to excessive alcohol consumption can lead to all sorts of problems, but most often either cirrhosis or alcohol-induced hepatitis. Liver failure among those who drink heavily for many years is likely. Pancreatitis, or the consistent inflammation of the pancreas, can also cause damage to the body, including high blood sugar leading to diabetes.
The risk of developing alcoholism has a definite genetic component. Studies have demonstrated that close relatives of people with alcoholism are more likely to become alcoholics themselves. This risk exists even for children adopted away from their biological families at birth and raised in a non-alcoholic adoptive family with no knowledge of their biological family's alcohol use. However, no specific gene for alcoholism has been found, and environmental factors (e.g., stress) and social factors (e.g., peer behavior) are thought to play a role in whether a person becomes alcohol dependent.
According to information derived from the United States National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Study released in 2006, about 8% of American adults are dependent on alcohol (estimates range from 5-10%). About 34% of adult Americans do not use alcohol at all. Another 44% are occasional or non-dependent users. Alcohol is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States (smoking and obesity rank first and second) and is responsible for about 85,000 deaths annually, about half from injury and half from disease. Alcoholism is involved in about 30% of homicides and 22% of suicides. It is the cause of about 20% of fatal motor vehicle accidents and is a contributing factor in between one-third and one-half of all vehicular accidents. Alcoholism costs the United States about $185 billion annually in costs related to violence, traffic accidents, lost work productivity, and direct medical expenses. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism estimates that at least 6.6 million children under age 18 live in households with at least one alcoholic parent and that before age 18 about 25% of children are exposed to family alcohol dependency or alcohol abuse.
Depending on the addiction type and intensity, you or someone you care about may require anything from a thirty day in-patient drug or alcohol treatment program all the way up to a 4-month or longer one. Certain drugs may allow for outpatient services while severe cases may need longer-term treatment services. However, you can find a Cheyenne treatment facility to fit just about any personal need.
Alcohol abuse and dependence, now both included under the diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, is a disease characterized by the sufferer having a pattern of drinking excessively despite the negative effects of alcohol on the individual's work, medical, legal, educational, and/or social life. It may involve a destructive pattern of alcohol use that includes a number of symptoms, including tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance, using more alcohol and/or for a longer time than planned, and trouble reducing its use.
Women develop long-term complications of alcohol dependence more rapidly than do men. Additionally, women have a higher mortality rate from alcoholism than men.[35] Examples of long-term complications include brain, heart, and liver damage[36] and an increased risk of breast cancer. Additionally, heavy drinking over time has been found to have a negative effect on reproductive functioning in women. This results in reproductive dysfunction such as anovulation, decreased ovarian mass, problems or irregularity of the menstrual cycle, and early menopause.[35] Alcoholic ketoacidosis can occur in individuals who chronically abuse alcohol and have a recent history of binge drinking.[37][38] The amount of alcohol that can be biologically processed and its effects differ between sexes. Equal dosages of alcohol consumed by men and women generally result in women having higher blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), since women generally have a higher percentage of body fat and therefore a lower volume of distribution for alcohol than men, and because the stomachs of men tend to metabolize alcohol more quickly.[39]

It’s rare for people with alcoholism to strive for that diagnosis. No one grows up wanting to struggle with alcohol for the rest of life. But alcoholism can be sneaky, creeping into life in ways that are subtle and that can pass by unnoticed. For some, alcoholism begins with peer pressure. These people just don’t intend to start drinking, and they may not begin life even enjoying alcohol, but their peers prompt and poke them to drink alcohol. In time, as they comply with these requests from peers, they lose the ability to control how and when they drink.
I am appalled that a book written by two extremely disturbed privileged white males who lived in 1930s Jim Crow era America is still the "treatment " standard for addiction. AA has been ruled a religious organization by several federal circuit courts, and it is impossible to work the program without a belief in a God who magically answers prayers for the addict who prays hard enough. It is not possible to turn one's will and life over to the care of Nature, or a Doorknob, or the Group of Drunks. One is guided through the steps by someone who is only qualified by the amount of sober time they claim to have. 12 step groups are especially dangerous for survivors of rape, abuse, and other trauma when they are tasked to examine "their part" in the crimes committed against them, not to mention having to defend themselves against the unethical yet joked about 13th Step.

There are many clues which can lead a doctor to suspect a patient is alcohol dependent, and will not usually require a physical examination. For example, a doctor may suspect alcohol dependence if a patient often asks for a medical certificate for time off work, has a mental health problem (e.g. depression) or physical conditions associated with alcohol consumption (especially liver cirrhosis). In such cases, a good doctor will ask the patient questions about their alcohol consumption patterns, or ask them to complete a questionnaire about alcohol, to assess whether or not their alcohol consumption is presenting a health risk.
With Step 9, individuals are apologizing for their actions while under the influence of drugs or alcohol or for the damages their addiction has caused. Individuals may then attempt to offer restitution and seek forgiveness and reconciliation but need to be aware that they may not receive it. Working through Step 9 helps to set things right so everyone can move on.
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Risk factors for developing problems with alcohol arise from many interconnected factors, including your genetics, how you were raised, your social environment, and your emotional health. Some racial groups, such as American Indians and Native Alaskans, are more at risk than others of developing drinking problems or alcohol addiction. People who have a family history of alcoholism or who associate closely with heavy drinkers are more likely to develop drinking problems. Finally, those who suffer from a mental health problem such as anxiety, depression, or bipolar disorder are also particularly at risk, because alcohol is often used to self-medicate.
Alcohol dependence is a legitimate health problem. Health professionals can provide advice, support and in some cases medication to help reduce alcohol dependence. You may feel embarrassed talking to a doctor about drinking too much, but remember that doctors and other health workers are there to help fix health problems, not to judge or berate their patients. A good doctor will encourage their patients to drink in moderation or perhaps abstain for periods of time, not make their patients feel guilty or bad for drinking drink too much alcohol.

There are three oral medications that have been FDA-approved to help people remain sober: disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. They are prescribed for those who have indicated their intention to abstain from alcohol but require some reinforcement. Disulfiram causes unpleasant symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and flushing with any amount of drinking. Naltrexone limits the cravings a person may get from drinking but can cause severe withdrawal symptoms in people who are also dependent on opiates. Acamprosate helps reduce the craving for alcohol. An injectable, long-acting form of naltrexone is also available. All of these medications are meant to be used in combination with counseling.

Support in sobriety and in attaining long-lasting recovery is found in 12-Step practice and regular participation in 12-Step programs and groups. These groups are designed for the addict, the alcoholic, and the family members of those with addiction. The philosophy is based on developing a relationship with a Higher Power and a helping fellowship that encourages an honest mindset and self-sacrifice. 12-Step fellowships facilitate a daily practice for sober and healthy living.
Based on this study, those who abstain altogether from substances – as advised in the 12-Step model – have better mental health outcomes than those who don’t abstain. The 12-Step model gives people a framework from which to surrender their addiction, process their experience, and move forward into new patterns. As described in an article on Psych Central called Recovery Using the 12 Steps, following the model assists an individual by helping build the following mental and emotional transformative practices and tools:
According to Vaillant's research, inner-city men began problem drinking approximately 10 years earlier than college graduates (age 25–30 y vs age 40–45 y). Inner-city men were more likely to be abstinent from alcohol consumption than college graduates (30% vs 10%) but more likely to die from drinking (30% vs 15%). A large percentage of college graduates alternated between controlled drinking and alcohol abuse for many years. Returning to controlled drinking from alcohol abuse is uncommon, no more than 10%; however, this figure is likely to be high because it was obtained from self-reported data. Mortality in both groups was related strongly to smoking. Abstinence for less than 5–6 years did not predict continued abstinence (41% of men abstinent for 2 y relapsed).
Although all forms of problem drinking are getting worse in the US, not everyone who drinks too much meets the criteria for AUD. The CDC found, in 2014, that 90 percent of those who drink too much alcohol, even frequently, are not physically dependent on the substance to feel normal. Although one in three adults drink to excess, meeting the criteria for heavy or binge drinking, nine out of 10 do not meet the criteria for AUD from the DSM-5.
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The support of a strong social network. In that same vein, since AA has been around for so long and is so widely instituted, its networks of support are both widespread and firmly rooted. Combined with that is the emphasis the 12-Step program places on having a sponsor to provide encouragement and motivation as well as regularly attending group meetings and finding strength through your peers.
The Landing is a unique and highly effective residential treatment program where adult men can receive intense personalized treatment that is focused on promoting recovery and optimizing brain health. With a unique holistic approach that incorporates the best of science-supported western medicine with centuries-old techniques of eastern healing, The Landing provides the comprehensive services that enable men to experience true healing in body, mind, and spirit. Men who choose to heal at The Landing will work in close collaboration with teams of dedicated and experienced treatment professionals, including a board-certified psychiatrist, licensed therapist, certified substance abuse counselors, marriage and family therapy interns, nurses, and clinical technicians. By focusing solely on the specific needs of men who are struggling with chemical dependency and related co-occurring disorders, The Landing is able to provide targeted treatment that helps men to focus on their recovery, set goals, and develop the tools they need in order to reinforce their recovery from alcohol, cocaine, and other substances. Gender-specific treatment enables men to discuss sensitive and personal issues that they may be hesitant to address in a mixed-gender environment. At The Landing, men can concentrate on their recovery process without worrying about social approval and the impression they may be making on others and can form an invaluable cohesive social network with other recovering men.
People who struggle with AUD may begin drinking because of social situations or anxiety about being around people; however, signs of a potential AUD include changes in friend groups, especially geared toward friends who drink versus those who don’t, and avoiding social situations to drink instead. Those who have a family member who struggles with AUD are more likely to suffer from high stress, emotional and physical abuse, and mental health or substance abuse problems later in life.
Q. Alcoholism Steve 26 yr old suffered with bi-polar and the related drugs that eventually lead to his over dose. He died in where he felt a connection to the intellectual environment. After suffering with Steve for so many years, I am convinced that this disease is genetic; his grandmother also suffered with drug addiction and a mental disorder, but had that gene that must have been inherited by Steve. Any one in the area of mental health and genetic engineering Research? We want to set up or get involved with public awareness on the devastation of this disease which kills 100+ thousands in this country each year; yet society treats it as a social problem -- The advancement of mental research has been slow almost medieval -- Please help. No one, no family should have to suffer the way my beautiful son suffered and who had so much to give to humanity.
One review warned of detrimental iatrogenic effects of twelve-step philosophy and labeled the organizations as cults,[41] while another review asserts that these programs bore little semblance to religious cults and that the techniques used appeared beneficial to some.[42] Another study found that a twelve-step program's focus on self-admission of having a problem increases deviant stigma and strips members of their previous cultural identity, replacing it with the deviant identity.[43] Another study asserts that the prior cultural identity may not be replaced entirely, but rather members found adapted a bicultural identity.[44]
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